Автор Тема: Обнаружены генетические следы мигрантов-земледельцев  (Прочитано 2728 раз)

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Оффлайн Cirill

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На Кипре и Крите из плодородного полумесяца :)

The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this
context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at
different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the
achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue
by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the
adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from
the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja’de El Mughara dating between 8,700–6,600 cal.
B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic
contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and
haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to
available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alfo¨ldi Vonaldiszes Kera´mia and
Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern
Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained
results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets
allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion,
whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the
observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and Crete seem to suggest
that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization.